More About Sharks Defense
Sharks are a vital part of the ocean ecosystem and the ocean's top predators. There are nearly 400 species of sharks that belong to the class Chondrichthyes, the Greek word for “cartilaginous fishes,” because their skeletons are made of cartilage, not bone.
Close relatives of the sharks include rays, skates, and sawfishes, which also have cartilaginous skeletons.
Shark habitats vary for each species, although most inhabit tropical, subtropical or temperate waters. Some sharks, like the blue and oceanic whitetip sharks, can be found far from land in the middle of oceans and many shark species live in the deep sea. Surprisingly, the bull shark, which is generally found in warm waters all over the world, has also been known to swim in freshwater lakes and rivers connected to the sea.
Sharks feed on a variety of fish and other prey. The great white shark preys on large fish, seals, and other marine mammals. The tiger shark has been known to ingest almost anything, and nuts, bolts and tennis shoes have been found in their stomachs. These were probably cases of tiger sharks feeding on some man-made garbage thrown overboard at sea. Some sharks, like the whale shark, are non-aggressive filter feeders. The three species of sharks that do not use their teeth in the usual sense to feed are the basking, megamouth, and whale shark. Instead, these sharks use other means to filter the water for food. A shark's tooth shape can indicate its diet and lifestyle.
Most sharks have between 7 and 14 rows of teeth, which are continuously replaced. The thresher shark also uses its extra-long tail fin for defense and mobility. Many sharks are at the top of food webs in the ocean and their only predator – other than larger sharks – is man.
About 30 percent of sharks are oviparous, which means the female sharks lay eggs containing developing embryos. The other 70 percent of sharks are viviparous and bear live young. The pregnancies of live-bearing sharks lasts 9 to 12 months. The female spiny dogfish is pregnant for 20 to 24 months, which is one of the longest pregnancies for any animal with a backbone. Male sharks can be identified by a pair of claspers attached to the back of their pelvic fins.
Sharks have a relatively slow growth rate and many sharks have a life span of 20 to 30 years or more. The spiny dogfish holds the current record for lifespan of more than 100 years old.
More About Sharks
Did You Know?
Sharks have the same five senses as humans plus electro-sensitivity, which helps them find hidden prey by detecting its electrical field. The electroreceptors operate through small openings on the head that are filled with a jelly-like substance that allows the shark to detect these electrical fields.
skin is made of teeth-like placoid scales called "dermal denticles,"
which means "skin teeth." These teeth are pointed backward to
enhance shark speed and hydrodynamics.
Sharks maintain buoyancy with an oil-filled liver that provides lift in the water.
Shark populations are declining due to the actions of humans. Harvesting sharks for food and other products has caused some shark populations to decline dramatically. The environmental effects of some pollutants found in shark tissues also can affect their health.
The number of sharks in ocean waters has mostly decreased in recent decades, yet shark attacks continue to cause fear in beachgoers. The International Shark Attack File contains records on known shark attacks from the mid-1500s to the present and conducts investigations and collects data worldwide when people are bitten. It's important to remember that when we go swimming in the ocean we are entering the shark’s habitat. Although many people are frightened by sharks, you are more likely to be struck by lightning than attacked by a shark.
Here at Mote...
The Center for Shark Research was established at Mote in 1991 and it is designated by the U.S. Congress as a National Center for Shark Research. Dr. Eugenie Clark, “shark lady” and scientist, started the Cape Haze Marine Laboratory in 1955, which was later renamed Mote Marine Laboratory in honor of benefactor William R. Mote and his family. Mote scientists, including former director Dr. Perry Gilbert, have been the leaders in international shark studies. The Center for Shark Research, directed by Dr. Robert Hueter, conducts many research projects, and shark tagging allows Mote scientists to study migration, aging, and growth of shark populations. Dr. Carl Luer directs biomedical research on sharks due to their remarkable resistance to cancer and other diseases. Studies also include the reproductive biology and embryology of the clearnose skate. Other research programs encompass the behavior, ecology, physiology, immunology and conservation of sharks and their relatives.
Castro, Jose I. 1983.
The Sharks of North American Waters.
Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Clark, Eugenie. 1969.
The Lady and the Sharks.
Mote Marine Laboratory.
The Ultimate Guide to Sharks. Video.
Parker, Steve and Jane. 1999.
The Encyclopedia of Sharks.
Firefly Books Ltd: Buffalo, New York.
University of Florida,
International Shark Attack File:
Mote Marine Laboratory has been a leader in marine research since it was founded in 1955. Today, we incorporate public outreach as a key part of our mission. Mote is an independent nonprofit organization and has seven centers for marine research, the public Mote Aquarium and an Education Division specializing in public programs for all ages.